Investment basics explained with investment types (2023)

What is an investment?

An investment is oneAttachmentor item acquired with the targetGenerate income or value. Appreciation refers to an increase in the value of an asset over time. When a person buys a good as an investment, the intention is not to consume the good but to use it in the future to create wealth.

An investment always involves spending a resource today - time, effort, money, or an asset - in hopes of a greater payoff in the future than what was initially invested. For example, an investor may buy a monetary asset now with the idea that the asset will generate income in the future or be sold later at a higher pricefor a win.

The central theses

  • An investment uses capital today to increase its value over time.
  • Investing requires investing capital in the form of time, money, effort, etc. in hopes of a greater payoff in the future than what was initially invested.
  • An investment can refer to any medium or mechanism used to generate future income, including bonds, stocks, real estate, or alternative investments.
  • Investments are usually not associated with value increase guarantees; It's possible to end up with less money than what you started with.
  • Investments can be diversified to reduce risk, although this may reduce the level of income potential.


What is an investment?

How an investment works

The act of investing aims to generate income and increase in value over time. An investment can refer to any mechanism used to generate future income. This includes buyingBind, shares orpropertyproperty, among other examples. In addition, buying a property that can be used to produce goods can be considered an investment.

In general, any action taken in hopes of future revenue can also be considered an investment. When for exampleopt for additional training, the goal is often to increase knowledge and improve skills. The upfront investment of time to attend classes and money to pay for tuition will hopefully result in higher earnings later in the student's career.

Because investing is based on the potential for future growth or income, there is always some risk associated with investing. An investment may not generate any income or even decrease in value over time. For example, a company you invest in may go bankrupt. Alternatively, the degree you're investing time and money towards may not result in a strong job market in the field.

Ainvestment bankoffers a variety of services to individuals and businesses, including many services designed to help individuals and businesses grow their wealth. Investment banking can also refer to a specific area of ​​banking related to the creation of capital for other companies, governments and other entitiessecurities, and help to facilitatemergers and acquisitions.

types of investments

There are arguably endless opportunities to invest; Finally, upgrading your vehicle's tires could be viewed as an investment that increases the utility and future value of the asset. Below are common types of investments that people value their capital.


A share is a piece of ownership in a public or private company. By owning shares, the investor may be entitled to dividend distributions generated from the company's net income. As the company becomes more successful and other investors try to buy that company's stock, its value can also increase and be sold for capital gains.

The two main types of stocks to invest in areStammaktienAndVorzugsaktien. Common stock often carries voting rights and entitlements to participate in certain matters. Preferred stock often has a first claim to dividends and must be paid before common stock.

Additionally, stocks are often classified as either growth or value investing. Investing in growth stocks is the strategy of investing in a company while it is still small and before it achieves market success. Investing in value stocks is the strategy of investing in a more established company whose stock price may not value the company appropriately.

Bonds/Fixed Income Securities

A bond is an investment that often requires an upfront investment and then pays a recurring amount over the life of the bond. When the bond matures, the investor then gets back the capital invested in the bond. Similar to debt, bond investing is a mechanism for certain companies to raise money. Many government agencies and companies issue bonds; then investors can bring in capital to generate a return.

The recurring payment granted to bondholders is referred to as aPayment with voucher. Because the coupon payment for a bond investment is usually fixed, a bond's price often fluctuates to change the bond's yield. For example, a bond paying 5% becomes cheaper to buy if there are market opportunities to earn 6%; As the price falls, the bond will of course generate a higher return.

Many investments can be leveraged through derivative products for higher returns (or higher losses). It is often recommended that investors do not engage in derivatives unless they are aware of the high level of risk involved.

index funds and mutual funds

Instead of choosing each individual company to invest in,index fund,Investment funds, and other types of funds often combine specific investments to create an investment vehicle. For example, instead of having to research and select each company individually, an investor can buy shares of a single mutual fund that owns shares of emerging market small-cap companies.

Mutual funds are actively managed by a company, while index funds are often passively managed. This means that the investment professionals who oversee the mutual fund try to beat a specific benchmark, while index funds often try to simply copy or mimic a benchmark. Because of this, mutual funds can be more expensive compared to more passive funds.


propertyInvestments are often broadly defined as investments in physical, tangible spaces that can be used. Land can be built on, office buildings can be lived in, warehouses can store inventory, and residential properties can house families. Real estate investments may involve the acquisition of land, the development of land for specific uses, or the purchase of ready-to-occupy commercial premises.

In some contexts, real estate broadly may include certain types of assets that may yield commodities. For example, an investor can invest in farmland; In addition to the reward of increased land value, the investment generates a return based on crop yield and farm income.

raw materials

raw materialsare often commodities such as agriculture, energy or metals. Investors can choose to invest in physical commodities (e.g. owning a gold bar) or alternative investment products that represent digital ownership (e.g. a gold ETF).

Commodities can be an investment as they are often used as inputs to society. Think of oil, gas or other forms of energy. In times of economic growth, companies often have higher energy requirements to ship more products or to manufacture additional goods. In addition, consumers may have higher energy demands due to travel. In this example, the commodity price fluctuates and can bring an investor a profit.


Cryptocurrency is oneBlockchain-based currency used to trade or hold digital assets. Cryptocurrency companies can issue coins or tokens that can increase in value. These tokens can be used to conduct transactions with specific networks or to pay fees for transactions.

In addition to capital appreciation, cryptocurrency can be stacked on a blockchain. This means that when investors agree to lock their tokens on a network to validate transactions, they are rewarded with additional tokens. Additionally, cryptocurrency has given rise to decentralized finance, a digital finance branch that allows users to lend, leverage, or alternatively use currencies.


A less traditional form of investing, collecting, or buying collectibles is to acquire rare items in anticipation of higher demand for those items. From sports memorabilia to comic books, these physical items often require significant physical preservation, especially considering older items are typically more valuable.

The concept behind collectibles is no different than other forms of investment such as stocks. Both predict that the popularity of something will increase in the future. For example, a current artist may not be popular but is changing in global trends, styles, and market interest. However, their art may become more valuable over time as the general population becomes more interested in their work.

An investment (i.e. stocks or bonds) is regulated by a financial institution (i.e. a broker). In addition, there are various vehicles (such as an IRA) that hold the investments. When you start investing, you need to figure out what you want for both.

How to start investing

There are many different avenues to take when learning how to invest or where to start when putting money aside. Here are some tips to get you started investing:

  • Do your own research.A common phrase used in the investment industry, it's important for investors to understand the vehicles in which they invest their money. Whether it's a single stock in an established company or a risky alternative investment venture, investors should do their homework beforehand rather than relying on (and often biased) third-party advice.
  • set up onepersonal spending plan.Before investing, individuals should consider their ability to put money aside. This includes making sure they have enough capital to pay for monthly expenses and already have an emergency fund built up. As tempting as investing may be, individuals should take care to fulfill their daily commitments first.
  • Understand liquidity constraints.Some investors may be less liquid than others, which means selling may be more difficult. In some cases an investment may be blocked for a period of time and cannot be liquidated. While no fine print is necessary, it is important to understand whether certain investments can be bought or sold at any time.
  • Research tax implications.Although an investment can be bought or sold at any time, there may be a tax disadvantage to doing so. In the face of unfavorable short-term capital gains tax rates, investors should be mindful of strategies that go beyond the product they hold, but what tax vehicle they invest that investment in.
  • Assess your risk preference.As already mentioned, investments come with risks. This means that you may end up withfewerMoney than what you started with. Investors unhappy with this idea can (1) reduce the amount they invest to what they are willing to lose, or (2) find ways to mitigate risk.
  • Contact an advisor.Many financial experts are happy to give you advice, let you know what they think about the markets and give you access to online platforms where you can invest your money.

Capital leases

The primary way to measure the success of an investment is to calculate theCapital leases(return). ROI is measured as:

ROI = (Current Value of Investment - Original Value of Investment) / Original Value of Investment

The ROI makes it possible to adequately compare different investments in different industries. For example, imagine two investments: a $1,000 investment in stocks that rose to $1,100 over the past year, or a $150,000 investment in real estate that is now worth $160,000.

Aktien ROI = ($1,100 - $1,000) / $1,000 = $100 / $1,000 = 10%

Real Estate ROI = ($160,000 - $150,000) / $150,000 = $10,000 / $150,000 = 6.67%

Although the real estate investment has appreciated by $10,000, many would argue that the stock investment has outperformed the real estate investment. That's because every dollar invested in the stock makes more money than every dollar invested in real estate.

ROI isn't everything; Consider an investment that has a steady 10% ROI each year versus a second investment that has an equal chance of making 25% or losing 25%. For some, stable returns outperform investment potential with higher returns.

investments and risks

In its simplest form, investment return and risk should be positivecorrelation. If an investment involves high risk, it should be accompanied by higher returns. When an investment is safer, it will often have lower returns.

When making investment decisions, investors must assess their willingness to take risks. Every investor will be different as some may be willing to risk losing the principle in exchange for the chance of bigger gains. Alternatively, extremely risk-averse investors are only looking for the safest vehicles where their investment only grows steadily (but slowly).

Investing and risk are often closely related to the prevailing conditions in the investor's life. As an investor approaches retirement, they will no longer have a stable, ongoing income. For this reason, people tend to make safer investments towards the end of their careers. On the other hand, a young professional can often bear the burden of losing money because he has his entire career to recover that capital. Because of this, younger investors are often more likely to invest in riskier assets.

Investments and diversification

One way for investors to reduce portfolio risk is to have a diverse range of their investments. By holding different products or securities, an investor may not lose as much money since they are not fully exposed in any way.

The concept ofdiversificationemerged from modern portfolio theory, the idea that holding stocks and bonds positively impacts a portfolio's risk-adjusted return. The argument is that holding stocks can only maximize returns, but it also maximizes volatility. Combining it with a more stable investment with lower yields reduces the risk an investor takes.

Investing vs Speculation

Speculation is a separate activity from investing.Investinvolves buying assets with the intention of holding them for the long term whilespeculationinvolves trying to exploit market inefficiencies for short-term gains. Ownership is not generally a target for speculators, while investors often seek to build up the number of assets in their portfolios over time.

AlthoughspeculatorsOften making informed decisions, speculation typically cannot be categorized as traditional investing. Speculation is generally considered a riskier activity than traditional investing (although this can vary depending on the type of investment). Some experts liken speculation to gambling, but the accuracy of this analogy may be a matter of personal opinion.

Invest vs. Save

Saving is the accumulation of money for future use and involves no risk whereas investing is the act of using money for potential future gain and involves some risk. Although both have intentions of having more capital available in the future, they grow in very different ways.

One aspect that is most transparent is the process of saving for a home down payment. Many advisors will suggest parking cash in a safer investment vehicle when saving for an important major purchase. Since investing involves more risk, a person needs to compare how losing the principle would affect their future plans.

Saving and investing are often intertwined as both can have a specific return or rate of return. Another key difference is federal insurance coverage for specific accounts. The FDIC provides insurance coverage for bank balances up to $250,000; This type of financial guarantee is often absent from investments.

How is an investment different from a bet or a gamble?

When you invest, you provide an individual or entity with funds that can be used to grow a business, launch new projects, or sustain day-to-day revenue generation. Investments, while risky, have a positive expected return. Games of chance, on the other hand, are based on chance and do not involve any money. Gambling is very risky and in most cases also has a negative expected return (e.g. in a casino).

Is investment the same as speculation?

Not really. An investment is usually a long-term commitment that can take several years to recoup. Investments are typically made only after due diligence and proper analysis have been conducted to understand the risks and benefits that could unfold. Speculation, on the other hand, is a purely directional bet on the price of something, and often short-term.

What are some types of investments I can make?

Most ordinary individuals can easily invest in stocks, bonds, and CDs. With stocks, you invest in a company's equity, which means you invest in a vested interest in a company's future profit streams and often receive voting rights (based on the number of shares owned) to voice the company's direction Company. Bonds and CDs are debt investments in which the borrower uses that money for a pursuit that is expected to yield cash flows greater than the interest owed to investors.

Why invest when you can save money risk-free?

As mentioned earlier, investing is using money to grow it. When you invest in stocks or bonds, you are using that capital under the supervision of a firm and its management team. While there is some risk, that risk is rewarded with a positive expected return in the form of capital gains and/or dividend and interest flows. Cash, on the other hand, will not grow and may very well losepurchasing powerover time due to inflation. Put simply, without investment, companies would not be able to raise the capital needed to grow the economy.

The final result

An investment is a plan to use money today in the hope of raising a larger sum of money in the future. While this plan may not always work out and investments can lose money, it's also the number one way people save for major purchases or retirement. From stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities to modern alternative investments, the digital age has created simple, transparent and fast methods of investing.

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